The DPLL procedure, due to Davis, Putnam, Logemann, and Loveland, is the basis of some of the most successful propositional satisfiability solvers to date. Although originally devised as a proof-procedure for first-order logic, it has been used almost exclusively for propositional logic so far because of its highly inefficient treatment of quantifiers, based on instantiation into ground formulas.
The recent FDPLL calculus by Baumgartner was the first successful attempt to lift the procedure to the first-order level without recurring to ground instantiations. FDPLL lifts to the first-order case the core of the DPLL procedure, the splitting rule, but ignores other aspects of the procedure that, although not necessary for completeness, are crucial for its effectiveness in practice.
In this paper, we present a new calculus loosely based on FDPLL that lifts these aspects as well. In addition to being a more faithful litfing of the DPLL procedure, the new calculus contains a more systematic treatment of universal literals, one of FDPLL's optimizations, and so has the potential of leading to much faster implementations.